Friday, May 27, 2011

Flash Converting - ADC 207

ADC 207 is the first to use Flash Converting An Advanced High Speed ​​VLSI 1.2 micron CMOS process. The process that is able to do the ADC 207 as mentioned earlier is very great and makes the ADC 207 is unique. The speed of the process of this ADC has a good linearity and have a stable temperature. ADC 207 has a lower power consumption is 250 mW. ADC is working with +5 VDC voltage source and at a frequency of 20 MHz. ADC 207 has a small sampling time is 12nS, thus making the ideal sampling results. ADC 207 has 128 features auto balanced comparators with each conversion that serves to offset temperature and dynamic effects that exist. Resistor ladder in the ADC 207 has a mid point that is connected to an external voltage source and function in the conversion of 7-bit linearity. ADC 207 has 3 levels of output that is easy to connect it with external components.


ADC 207 Architecture

flash converting



Feature ADC 207

  • 7-bit flash A / D Converter
  • Sampling frequency of 20 MHz
  • Low power consumption (250mW)
  • VCC 5 VDC
  • 1.2 micron CMOS technology
  • 7 bits with 3 levels of output gates and overflow bits
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Water to activated Relay circuit

Water to activated Relay circuit

Water to activated Relay circuit
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Thursday, May 26, 2011

Battery Charger based on AVR ATMega 8535

Battery Charger in general can be interpreted as a means to recharge the battery charge. Principles of good charger circuit is capable of providing resources to perform effectively charging the battery, efficient and safe. AVR-Based Battery Charger ATMega 8535 With LCD Display This is an idea that had just emerged from the author. In AVR-Based Battery Charger design ATMega 8535 With LCD Display is using AVR microcontroller processor charger with ATMega 8535, process the data viewer charger with LCD, a safety from a hot temperature with the temperature sensor LM35 and several buttons for setting the charger. And component power charger Battery Charger Based on AVR ATMega 8535 With LCD Display is a FET.

Battery Charger based on AVR ATMega 8535




Function-Based Battery Charger Part Series AVR ATMega 8535 With LCD Display
ATMega 8535 AVR microcontroller serves as the controlling process of the charger.
Button S1 - S5 as input data charger settings (setting the current, maximum temperature, peak voltage batteries)
LM35 Temperature Sensor function as heat sensors in the battery during charge.
LCD Display function to display data and display settings charger battery charger process measurement data.
FET serves as a power charger that will flow into the battery charging current.
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IC LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter

IC LM2917 IC chip is designed specifically as a Frequency to Voltage Converter or Frequency to Voltage converter. In its use to applications Frequency to Voltage Converter IC LM2917 requires few external components. There are several examples of applications of Frequency to Voltage Converter IC LM2917 datasheet that is included in the LM2917 IC. In this article series Frequency to Voltage Converter IC also taken from the LM2917 datasheet. The advantages of single chip LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter is able to provide instantaneous volt output o at time of frequency change 0 Hz. Very easy to apply in measuring the output frequency with the formulation of single-chip Frequency to Voltage Converter VOUT = FIN x VCC x R1 x C1. Then the single-chip LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter This configuration requires only the RC only in frequency doubling. And has an internal zener regulator to aimlessly accuracy and stability in frequency-to-voltage conversion process.

Application circuit Figure IC LM2917 as Frequency to Voltage Converter

IC LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter



Feature-owned single-chip LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter
Reference to ground directly with variable reluctance
Op Amp / Comparator with transistor output
50 mA maximum output currents for application directly to the load
Frequency doubling for low ripel
Buid in zener
Linear output ± 0.3%
Application single chip LM2917 Frequency to Voltage Converter
Frequency to Voltage Converter
Rotation speed sensor applications
Speedometer
Tachometer
Cruise Control
Cluth Control
And other applications associated with the measurement of rotation speed or frequency measurements.
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Flip Flop LED

Flip flop circuit is a series of free runing multivibrator given the burden of LEDs on each side of the transition changes its output signal. Flip flop circuit with LEDs is quite simple, that is prepared with 2 units and 2 units of 2N3904 transistor circuit tank circuit composed by the RC circuit. LED indicators signal a change that is placed on each side of the flip flop will be lit in turn by the fire and extinguished the same as the charge and discharge capacitor. Flip flop circuit is quite simple as shown in the picture below.

Flip Flop LED series
Flip Flop LED




The working principle is the flip flop over when the series voltage source is given then the 10uF capacitor will be charged through R 470 and the LED will then be forwarded to triger the transistor base so that the transistor will turn ON and LEDs. this occurs alternately on each side, so that the LED light will illuminate in turn as well.
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Wednesday, May 25, 2011

AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller

SMS Remote controller is a device used to control a device remotely using SMS through GSM mobile phones. Process control equipment with a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller can be used to control life and death of these equipment will provide information on the status of replies to our phone in return successful command execution. Yanga equipment can be controlled by a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller include lights, water pumps, garage doors, gates and much more. AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote controller uses the module-47 Sony ericson GM as recipient and sender of the SMS module. Then to the SMS data processor on a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote controller is using AVR microcontroller ATTiny 2313.


Series AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller




AVR circuit this part ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller
AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote controller uses the AVR attiny2313 with 4MHz clock frequency, GSM Module GM trnceiver 47 Sony ericson, SIM Card, 4 relays and an IC regulator. ATTiny AVR microcontroller 2313 can work well on the voltage 2.7 VDC - 5.5 VDC for working with the frequency at 10MHz bahwah. The set of AVR ATTiny In SMS Remote Controller To make use of this power supply from the batteries 3.3 VDC. Connection using a SIM Card SIM Card Holder which is connected to the module GM-47, AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller works with communication between AVR ATTiny and GM-47 module at 9600bps. In a series of AVR ATTiny To SMS Remote controller is equipped with LED D6 as an indicator of the data interconnect GM-47 module with cellular operators where this LED will light continuously when not apat network and will be lit by flashes when a signal from the operator.

Specifications AVR series ATTiny To SMS Remote Controller

  • 4 Relay for ON / OFF electronic devices
  • 8 input lines for reading in a normal switching
  • LED indicators signal operator
  • SMS command with password, so only the owner can operate
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Real time controller AT89C2051

Real time controller is a device used to exercise control over household perankat continuously ongoing and scheduled. The series of Real Time Controllers with microcontroller AT89C2051 which dituls in this article is a tool that can do that serve targeted. The series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 Atmel AT89C2051 uses a data processor and controller sebgai pernagkat installed. In the application directly perngkat requires a separate interface from a wide range of Real Time Controllers with this AT89C2051 microcontroller. When will connect the device with the AC power source to use interface optocoupler (MOC) or solid state relay. Devices that can be connected with the series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 include lights, water machines, fans, electronic gate. The series of Real Time Controllers with this AT89C2051 microcontroller to control a height of water level, controlling the flame lights the scheduled SCARA and censored.




Specifications Series Real Time Controller with AT89C2051 Microcontroller
The series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 uses a computer to perform serial communication settings via computer. The series of Real Time Controller with Microcontroller AT89C2051 has 6 units of output channels that can be independently controlled depending on the program induced in the tool. Output in the series of Real Time Controller with AT89C2051 microcontroller requires an interface to deal with equipment that will be in control.
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Easy Downloader Circuit

Atmel microcontroller series AT89Cxx51 Easy Downloader is one of the downloader that is often used to write data to program the Atmel microcontroller AT89CXX51. Easy Downloader AT89Cxx51 ATMEL microcontroller is using the serial port as a channel of communication with the computer. Easy Downloader ATMEL Microcontroller AT89Cxx51 can be used to program Atmel AT89CXX51 in parallel. Atmel microcontroller series AT89Cxx51 Easy Downloader is quite simple to make your own because the components necessary to membutanya not complex. Atmel microcontroller series AT89Cxx51 Easy Downloader do not support the serial programming microcontrollers ISP. In the article Easy Downloader ATMEL Microcontroller AT89Cxx51 only displays images Easy Downloader Microcontroller series from Atmel AT89Cxx51 mengulasnya only and are simple.


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Zero Crossing Detector

Zero Crossing Detector circuit is basically an application of a comparator. In the article series Zero Crossing Detector with Op Amp is built using a comparator of an Op Amp IC741/351. The process of detection of this comparator is mngamati 0Volt input signal crossing point by making reference value at comparator 0Volt. The output of the Zero Crossing Detector circuit with Op Amp is wave-shaped box that mengiterprestasikan teteksi result of the crossroads of 0 volt input signal.

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PWM DC Motor Driver

As the title "PWM DC Motor Driver with Forward / Reverse and Breaking" this series is a PWM DC motor controller that can control DC motors with clockwise rotation and counter-clockwise and is equipped with a braking system. In a series DC motor control PWM DC Motor Driver with Forward / Reverse and Breaking use this system for SASL PWM DC motor rotation speed. Power driver in a series DC motor PWM DC Motor Driver with Forward / Reverse and Breaking uses mosfet IRF150. Then, to control the direction of rotation of DC motor in the circuit of PWM DC Motor Driver with Forward / Reverse and Breaking uses relays. Then the braking system on a series of PWM DC Motor Driver with Forward / Reverse and Breaking is done by a resistor that is connected to the motor using relays.


Fig circuit PWM DC Motor Driver with Forward / Reverse and Breaking




See image details a series of PWM DC Motor Driver with Forward / Reverse and Breaking above. DC motor speed is set to pulse through the input PWM PWM, Power driver uses and the protection mosfet IRF150 with D7 as dumping. Then to start and stop is controlled via the logic input lines provided on the start / stop circuit PWM DC Motor Driver. Line inputs are used to set the reverse direction of rotation of DC motor that is with merberikan logic 1 / 0 on the path. R19 in the circuit of PWM DC Motor Driver serves as an expense to do the braking puteran DC motor.
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7Segment Display 74LS247

The displayor using a 7 segment display in electronic device applications is drain port of a microcontroller or data that would point in the show, especially when the data would be displayed more than 1 digit. necessary path to control the resources of each 7 segment and the path to input data on the 7 segment. Series Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex is a way to save the port or microcontroller data path that will be displayed. Series Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex uses BCD to 7 segment decoder 74LS247 BCD to encode data from the data that will be displayed, then for each resource viewer 7 segment using the set of transistors as electronic switches. Current flowing in the viewer in a series of 7 segment Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex is in limiting use yag resistor in series pairs in each collector transistor.


Image Series Display 7 Segment 4 Digit Multiplex




Configuration circuit components 7 Segment 4 Digit Display Multiplex
The legs LT, RBI, RBO in this circuit is not connected (logic high) is meant to display data from the seven segment according to data from the microcontroller. Resistors are mounted a series of LED is used as a barrier for current flow that flows through the LED does not exceed the maximum allowable current that is equal to 20 mA.
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NIMH battery charger

Series NIMH Battery Charger with IC LT4060 is a NIMH battery charger is powerful, effective and efficient. Featur owned by IC LT4060 is a specialization of a NIMH battery charger. NIMH Battery Charger with IC LT4060 can perform safely charging NIMH batteries because it comes with a battery temperature protection is in charge and the peak level detection system of the battery voltage is in charge. Battery temperature protection system from the excessive use of NTC temperature sensor. Series NIMH Battery Charger with IC LT4060 also features a charging indicator that will light up when charging and will die when the battery is full. IC 4060 used in this NIMH battery charger from Linear Technology is a production that is designed special for NIMH battery charger.


Image Series NIMH Battery Charger with IC LT4060





Description Series NIMH Battery Charger with IC LT4060
R2 potentiometer used for setting the maximum temperature (at set at the value of 4K)
LED D1 is a battery charging indicator
Charger Power Transistor (Q1) can be replaced with PNP transistors are capable of a current of 3A - 5A
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Fire Alarm LDR

Fire alarm can be made with a light sensor (LDR) as in the article with the title of Fire Alarm with this LDR sensor. Principles of fire detection Fire Alarm with LDR sensor is to detect the presence of smoke through the LDR. LDR in the series Fire Alarm does not stand alone in detecting a fire, but the LDR in the pair with the light shining on the LDR. Hence, in the detected smoke from the fire then the intensity of light received by the LDR LDR decreases and eventually trigger an alarm system on a series of Fire Alarm with this LDR sensor. Part 2 that in the series of Fire Alarm with Sensor LDR are some of the sensors, tone generator, audio power.


Image Series Fire Alarm with Sensor LDR




Function Section of the Fire Alarm with Sensor LDR
Part of LDR and light sensor facing to fire smoke detection
Part trigger using transistors and regulators as a trigger tone generator 7805
Tone generator section with IC UM66
Power audio section uses an audio power IC TDA 2002 which is equipped with voleme control (R3)
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10 Minutes timer with 555

Applications of 555 timer IC is very diverse, one series of 10 Minute Timer with IC 555. 10 Minute Timer This circuit uses IC NE555 is set as a monostable multivibrator. The timing of the timer circuit 10 minutes with the IC 555 is governed by the configuration of C2, R4 and R5. The greater the value of C2 at 10-minute timer circuit with IC 555 timer is active then the time will stay longer. Total resistance value between R4 and R5 also determine the active circuit 10 minute timer with IC 555, where the greater the value the longer time was also active. The core active setting the timer on the set of C2 charging time for 10 minutes on the timer circuit with IC 555. So, with the value of C2 remain so with time on the circuit timing Timer 10 minutes by IC 555 can be set by changing the resistance value R 4 + R 5. Indicators of active timer at 10 minute timer circuit with IC 555 uses the LED D2 and D3 will light up only one course to identify the active timer and the timer has not been met.


Figure 10 Minute Timer circuit with IC 555




Description:

S1 is used to set / reset timer
R5 is used to set the timer to the desired time
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Audio Peak Indicator

The existence of the peak indicator "Audio Peak Indicator" in an audio device is needed. Audio Peak indicator is a simple circuit to detect the peak level of audio signal. Audio Peak indicator circuit is built with duabuah transistor and LED indicator sebgai peak level detection of audio signals. The main function of a series of Audio Peak indicator is to determine the occurrence of the peak level of audio signal that is more than +4 dB, equivalent to 1.25 V rms. If the received audio signal Audio Peak Indicator more than +4 dB was the LEDs in series Peak Audio This indicator will light. Audio Peak indicator circuit is mounted on the output audio system.


Image Series Audio Peak Indicator




Audio Peak Indicator Component List:
R1 = 10Kohm
R2 = 1.2Kohm
R3 = 220Kohm
R4-5 = 4.7Kohm
C1 = 47uF 25V
C2 = 2.2uF 25V
Q1-2 = BC550C
D1 = LED RED

We hope to form the reference materials in the manufacture of circuit pernagkat Audio Peak Indicators in the audio readers.
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TDA 7012T FM Radio Receiver

FM Radio Receiver IC TDA 7012T is very simple, but it has an FM radio receiver sensitivity and good selectivity. Single Chip FM Receifer cool name of IC TDA7012T 7012T TDA is to build an FM receiver requires a few additional components. Feature contained in FM receiver IC TDA 7012T is quite tempting to an FM receiver. Among features an FM receiver TDA 7012T is a low-voltage applications micro affability arrangement (MTS), Frequency Loked Loop (FLL) to 76 KHz range and selectivity of FM receiver with RC Filter. In an article by FM Radio Receiver IC TDA 7012T can be seen in the FM receiver circuit which can be made​​.


Image Series FM Radio Receiver with IC TDA 7012T




From the picture above components to make the FM Radio Receiver IC TDA 7012T as follows:

R1 = 8kΩ2
R2 = 10kΩ
R3 = 390Ω
C1, C3 = 10nF
C2, C6, C9, C16 = 100nF
C4 = 33pF
C5 = 25pF trimmer
C7, C10 = 1nF5
C8 = 820pF C11 = 1NF
C12 = 68pF
C13 = 220pF
C14 = 47μF 10V
C15 = 3nF3
L1 = 36nH
L2 = 1μH,
IC1 = TDA7021T

Hopefully useful and become an idea in the manufacture of Mini FM Receiver with IC TDA 7012T
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Voltage to frequency converter

Changing the voltage to frequency scale in the design of an electronic device is sometimes necessary. The series of articles voltage to frequency converter with the XR 4151 is one jawabanny. Voltage to Frequency converter circuit with the XR 4151 is the idea of ​​time in college, when there are projects to create a tool to hatch chicken eggs. It will be my neighbor also write articles incubators chicken egg-based microcontroller AT89C2051 (tempoe doeloe). Maybe there are friends who still remember to this project. Back to the topic of voltage to frequency converter circuit with the XR 4151. IC XR 4151 is a major component of voltage to frequency converter (Voltage to Frequency Converter).


Fig circuit voltage to frequency converter with the XR 4151





From voltage to frequency converter circuit with XR 4151 on the input signal circuit is a DC voltage level. IC XR4151 on voltage to frequency converter circuit serves to convert the voltage level coming into form in the development of the frequency change, where the output frequency range of voltage to frequency converter with the XR 4151 is proportional to the voltage level input voltage to frequency converter circuit with this 4151 XR.
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Audio Power Amplifier LM3886

Audio Power Amplifier LM3886
Audio Power Amplifier is an important part in the reproduction of sound in a sound system. Audio Power Amplifier LM 3886 with power IC Audio Power Amplifier is a highly capable and able to produce 68 Watts with power rata2 4Ohm load and capable of producing power 38 Watt with 8Ohm load. With good sound reproduction capabilities of 20Hz-20kHz is also included on this LM3886 Audio Power Amplifier. LM3886 Audio Power Amplifier is equipped with spike protection that will protect the output circuit from overvoltage, undervoltage, overloads, konrsleting power supply, thermal runawaydan peak temperature. Audio Power Amplifier LM3886 also features a noise reduction system which can keep the audio from the noise well.

Image of Basic Audio Power Amplifier Series LM3886

Audio Power Amplifier LM3886



Audio Power Amplifier LM3886

Feature owned LM3886 Audio Power Amplifier

  • 68W cont. avg. output power into 4Ω at VCC = ± 28V
  • 38W cont. avg. output power into 8Ω at VCC = ± 28V
  • 50W cont. avg. output power into 8Ω at VCC = ± 35V
  • 135W instantaneous peak output power capability
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio ≥ 92dB
  • An input mute function
  • Output protection from a short to ground or to the supplies via internal current limiting circuitry
  • Output over-voltage protection against transients from inductive loads
  • Supply under-voltage protection, not allowing internal biasing to occur Pls | VEE | + | VCC | ≤ 12V, Thus eliminating turn-on and turn-off transients
  • 11-lead TO-220 package
  • Wide supply range 20V - 94V
  • Application of Audio Power Amplifier LM3886
  • Stereo audio system
  • Active Speaker
  • High End Audio Power TV
  • Suround Power Amplifier
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MCS51 AT89S51 microcontroller architecture

Microcontroller architecture we need to know if we will use this MCS51 microcontroller in a control MCS51 microcontroller-based electronic devices. AT89S51 microcontroller MCS51 architecture actually almost similar to the other MCS51. MCS51 Microcontroller AT89S51 is MCS51 family of microcontrollers with 40 pins. In this article MCS51 AT89S51 microcontroller architecture can be seen, although not all.


MCS51 Microcontroller Architecture AT89S51
AT89S51 microcontroller has several features, among others, as follows:

4 K bytes Flash PEROM
The frequency of 4 Hz - 24 MHz
128 x 8 bit Internal RAM
32 channels of I / O bi-directional
2 pieces of 16-bit timer
2 external interrupt and internal interrupt 3
A pair of serial communication ports
Here is a brief description of each leg functions contained in the microcontroller AT89S51.

GND (Ground) or grounding function as a negative supply or ground path.
VCC serves to route the positive power supply 5V DC to the microcontroller.
RST / Vpp is a microcontroller reset line with the transition low to high, Vpp is used as supply voltage when programming the microcontroller.
ALE / PROG, this foot is used to capture or to a low address latch (A0.. A7) to the external memory during normal operation. Receive a program pulse input during the programming of internal Flash PEROM.
PSEN Program Store Enable is the PSEN output is where the control signal or activate a program that allows an external memory (EPROM external) to the data bus during normal operation.
EA / Vpp (External Access Enable) is to direct the selection of program execution from external memory or internal memory and then starts a new external memory. Legs are also receive 12.75 V for Flash programming power supply PEROM.
XTAL1 is the input path to the amplifier oscillator on a microcontroller or external input source pulse from the microcontroller.
XTAL2 is the output path of the oscillator amplifier.
P0.1 - P0.7 is an output port / input (I / O) type bidirectional open-drain (without internal pullup). Port 0 can be configured as a bus address / data, the low (low byte) during the process of accessing the data memory and external programs.
P1.0 - P1.7 is I / O ports are equipped with two-way internal pullup. Port 1 also receives the address low during programming and verification of flash PEROM.
P2.0 - P2.7 is I / O ports equipped with two-way internal pullup. Port 2 is the high part of byte address (high byte) for taking instructions from external program memory and during programming and verification of flash PEROM.
P3.0 - P3.7 is I / O ports equipped with two-way internal pullup. Port 3 has alternative functions, including receiving the control signals along with the port 2 during programming and verification of flash PEROM.
Microcontroller AT89S51 has a data memory address space and a separate program. The separation of program memory and data memory allowing the data accessed by an 8-bit addresses, allowing you to quickly and easily stored and manipulated by an 8-bit CPU. Internal memory location 0000H to the program occupies 0FFFh, while for external memory location 1000H to occupy FFFFH. Data memory occupies a separate address space from Program Memory.
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Doubler Digital Frequency

Doubler Digital Frequencycircuit includes a simple and easy to understand. Digital Frequency Doubler circuit application contained in the system electronics such as audio-producing organ, or keyboard. The function of this series Digital Frequency Doubler for multiplying two input frequencies. The process of multiplying 2 on scales in an organ in principle is like this series Digital Frequency Doubler. Example of rising to a ringing tone DO RE then electronically technique in it is by multiplying the two frequency bands such as this series Digital Frequency Doubler.


Doubler Digital Frequency
Doubler Digital Frequency
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Microcontroller Interface Engineering With ADC 0804

In ADC 0804 interface techniques with microcontrollers are pin-pin control must be controlled if we want to use the ADC with the microcontroller, there is value addition refferensi voltage to be supplied in 0804 ADC interface with a microcontroller, for example, we use the 0804 ADC (8 bit), if we give refferensi voltage 2.55 volts then we will get the increase of 1 bit to change 10 mVolt. Please note that the 0804 ADC pin on the leg that is form Vref Vref / 2, so to get a 10mV resolution is necessary for setting Vref / 2 equal to 1.275 V


The interface circuit microcontroller with ADC 0804

Microcontroller Interface Engineering With ADC 0804



Mechanical interface microcontroller with ADC 0804
The steps in accessing data from the ADC 0804 by the microcontroller sebgai follows;

Enable ADC with signal 0 at the foot of Chip Select.
Give commands from conversion by providing a low pulse to the foot of the ADC Write narrow
Wait for the ADC issued a signal 0 from his leg INT
Give a moment of time delay for data from the ADC is correct
Give the read command by giving the signal 0 at the foot of ADC Read
Give a moment of time delay
Now data from the ADC is ready for use and if the microcontroller.
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Choose PIC or AVR ATMEGA

PIC or AVR ATMEGA ATMega8535 PIC16F87X
Microcontroller more and more, to choose to use the PIC 16F microcontroller or AVR family ATMEGA 8535 just need googling that here. System works sama2 work on both the base 8-bit PIC or AVR ATMEGA. PIC or AVR basically the same microcontroller that has an analog input facilities in accordance with what I need. Feature owned by PIC and AVR ATMEGA too much alike. From the PIC feature on the analog input also has AVR ATMEGA. Feature ADC also owned by PIC or AVR ATMEGA even between PIC and AVR ATMEGA is sama2 have ADC with many channels all (plus mantab all). From the feature control PWM PIC and AVR ATMEGA also have. Well bener2 added mantab world with the presence of PIC microcontroller or AVR ATMEGA this, first MCS51 family still AT89C5x or AT89S5x wrote that in use. After dipikir2 should also be detailed feature between PIC and AVR ATMEGA with details.


PIC family Featured PIC16F87X
High performance RISC CPU
Only 35 single word instructions to learn
All single cycle instructions except for program branches the which are two cycle
Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle
Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory,
Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM)
Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory
Pinout compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77
Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources)
Eight level deep hardware stack
Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes
Power-on Reset (POR)
Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation
Programmable code protection
Power saving SLEEP mode
Selectable oscillator options
Low power, high speed CMOS FLASH / EEPROM technology
Fully static design
In-Circuit Serial Programming  (ICSP) via two pins
Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability
In-Circuit Debugging via two pins
Processor read / write access to program memory
Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V
High Sink / Source Current: 25 mA
Commercial, Industrial and Extended temperature ranges
Low-power consumption:
- <0.6 mA typical @ 3V, 4 MHz
- 20 μA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz
- <1 μA typical standby current

Pin Diagram
Peripheral Features:

Timer0: 8-bit timer / counter with 8-bit prescaler
Timer1: 16-bit timer / counter with prescaler, can be incremented During SLEEP via external crystal / clock
Timer2: 8-bit timer / counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler
Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules
- Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns
- Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns
- PWM max. resolution is 10-bit

10-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital converter
Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (Master mode) and I2C (Master / Slave)
Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (USART / SCI) with 9-bit address detection
Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8-bits wide, with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only)
Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Featured AVR ATMEGA 8535
High-performance, Low-power AVR ® 8-bit Microcontroller
Advanced RISC Architecture
- 130 Powerful Instructions - Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
- 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
- Fully Static Operation
- Up to 16 MIPS throughput at 16 MHz
- On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier

Nonvolatile Program and Data Memories
- 8K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash Endurance: 10,000 Write / Erase Cycles
- Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits

In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
True Read-While-Write Operation
- 512 Bytes EEPROM Endurance: 100,000 Write / Erase Cycles
- 512 Bytes Internal SRAM
- Programming Lock for Software Security

Peripheral Features
- Two 8-bit Timer / Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes
- One 16-bit Timer / Counter with Separate prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture Mode
- Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
- Four PWM Channels
- 8-channel, 10-bit ADC
8 Single-ended Channels
7 Differential Channels for TQFP Package Only
2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x, 10x, or 200x for TQFP Package Only
- Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
- Programmable Serial USART
- Master / Slave SPI Serial Interface
- Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
- On-chip Analog Comparator

Special Microcontroller Features
- Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
- Internal calibrated RC Oscillator
- External and Internal Interrupt Sources
- Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby

I / O and Packages
- 32 Programmable I / O Lines
- 40-pin PDIP, 44-lead TQFP, 44-lead PLCC, and 44-pad QFN / MLF

Operating Voltages
- 2.7 - 5.5V for ATmega8535L
- 4.5 - 5.5V for ATmega8535

Speed ​​Grades
- 0 - 8 MHz for ATmega8535L
- 0-16 MHz for ATmega8535
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Digital Thermometer 0-100.0°Celsius

Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C is a digital thermometer that operates in mode temperature measurement in Celsius (° C). Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C in this article using the form data processing microcontroller AT89C4051. Temperature sensors used in Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C. This temperature sensor LM35D. Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C. It uses the temperature measurement data viewer in the form of 1 line LCD viewer. Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C. It can display the temperature measurement data with a resolution of 0.1 ° C.
Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C

Digital Thermometer 0-100.0°Celsius




Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C. These temperature sensors make use of LM35D as temperature sensing. In Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C. This temperature sensor measurement data this LM35D (Level Voltage) is then converted into 4-bit binary data using the ADC CA3162. Then the 4-bit data from ADC CA3162 which is a measurement of data if the temperature is in the AT89C4951 microcontroller so that it becomes an operating principle of temperature measurement based on digital thermometers. In the final stage of the Digital Thermometer 0-100.0 ° C. These data digitla adlah appearance temperature measurement, using digital data viewer of the LCD 1 line.
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Applications for the Matrix Keypad MCS51 Hexadecimal

Hexadecimal keypad matrix can be created with a microcontroller by using the parallel port MCS51. Hexadecimal keypad matrix system is working by reading the data on tiab line through each column or vice versa depending on the program. To make enough Hexadecimal keypad matrix with 1 port MCS51 microcontroller. With 1 parallel port, the microcontroller can be made Matrix Keypad Hexadecimal 4 columns and 4 lines or so-disebud with 4 × 4 matrix keypad. Hexadecimal Keypad Matrix 4 × 4 is in pernacangannya will provide data Hexadecimal 0 - F.

Parallel port for MCS51 Microcontroller Matrix Keypad
The parallel port is part of the most widely used microcontroller. Ranging from things very simple for example to turn on the LED or read button, used also to form a hexadecimal keypad, to control the stepper motor and connecting the microcontroller to the printer parallel.

In general the parallel port is said to be a means of input / output that can be used to transfer data several bits (typically 8 bits) once gus through lane (feet IC) prepared for it. The path are numbered from 0 to 7, in accordance with the serial number of bits in the accumulator that was used to trasfer data to / from the parallel port. For example, the accumulator is used to receive data from Port 0, then the line number 0 of Port 0 (usually abbreviated as P0.0) will be transferred to the accumulator bit number 0 (usually abbreviated as A.0).

Almost all microcontroller IC legs can be used as a parallel port. AT89C2051 legs 20, 15 feet can be used as a parallel port. AT89C51-footed 40 of them 32 feet can be used as a parallel port.

Nevertheless, there is also a parallel port that does not consist of an 8-lane, for example, Port 1 of AT89C2051 only consists of 7 lines, numbered ranging from P1.0 to P1.7, P1.6 but no. This sort of thing is usually caused by the IC legs are available are not sufficient to contain all relevant path parallel port is complete.

All lines on the parallel port (except Port 0) MCS51 equipped with about 50 kOhm resistance, corresponding to a path connecting Vcc resources. On chip AT89C1051, AT89C2051 and AT89C4051, Port 1 path 0 and 1 (P1.0 and P1.1) are not equipped with these detainees, as a result if both paths are used as outputs must be added detainees outside AT89C2051, which connects the pathways to a power source Vcc.

4 x 4 Matrix Keypad Hexadecimal
Matrix Keypad 4 × 4 is an arrangement of 16 buttons form the keypad as a means to enter into the microcontroller, although the number of buttons there are 16 but only require an 8-lane parallel ports, as shown in the picture below.

In the circuit in the image above, each button connects an output line (K1, K2, K3 or K4) into a line input (B1, B2, B3 or B4), as described in detail in the lower right circle images, buttons "A" connecting path to the lane B4 K1. Working from a series of keypad is fully implemented with the software.
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Programming Learning MCS51

Learning Programming MCS51 becomes mandatory we learn if we want to use the MCS51. In the first part of this Learning Programming MCS51 we will learn together about the basic programming language MCS51 microcontroller. Where to program MCS51 outline there are 2 core parts of pemrogramanya language is "Words Work" and "Object". In the article Programming MCS51 this first part we will study first the "verb" is a command group Peng-copies of data, the command group arithmetic and logic command group.


Reference to DATA IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
Data can be in many different places, thus known a few ways to describe the data (in English often referred to as 'Addressing Mode'), among others, as follows:

The mention of constant data (immediate addressing mode): MOV A, # $ 20. Constant data is data that was in the instructions. Examples of this instruction has the data meaning a constant $ 20 (as a constant data marked with '#') on-copy it into the accumulator A. What needs to be properly addressed in this order is the number $ 20 is part of the instruction.
Reference to data directly (direct addressing mode), this method is used to refer to data residing in memory by calling the memory number where the data are: MOV A, $ 30. Examples of these instructions have the meaning of data in the memory number $ 30 in-copy it to the accumulators.
At first glance these same instructions to the instruction constant data above, the difference above instructions using the '#' which marks the $ 20 is a data constant, whereas in this instruction because there was no sign '#' then $ 30 is a number from memory.

The mention of indirect data (indirect addressing mode), this method is used to refer to data residing in memory, if memory data storage is changing its location so that the memory number is not called directly but in-'titip' her into another register : MOV A, @ R0.
In this instruction versatile R0 register is used to record the number of memory, so that this instruction has a memory meaning that the number recorded in the contents of R0-copy it into the accumulator A.

Sign '@' is used to mark the memory number stored in R0.

Compare this with the instruction memory number directly mention above, in this instruction first memory numbers are stored in R0 and R0 appoint a role which memory is used, so that if the value of R0 change the designated memory will also be changed as well.

In this instruction registers R0 functioning multipurpose container for the address register (indirect address register), other than all-purpose registers R0 R1 can also be used as a container for the address register.

Reference to data in the register (register addressing mode): MOV A, R5. This instruction has the meaning of data in all-purpose register R5 is copy it into the accumulator A. This instruction makes all-purpose registers R0 to R7 as a place to store data that is very practical that it works very fast.
The data referred to in the discussion above all in the data memory (including all-purpose registers are also located in data memory). In writing the program, often required standard table that is stored along with the program. Tables of this kind is really a data residing in program memory!
For this purpose, MCS51 have any mention of data in memory means programs conducted by indirect (indirect addressing code mode): MOVC A, @ A + DPTR.

Notice in this MOV instruction is replaced with MOVC, the additional letter C is meant to distinguish that this instruction is used in the program memory. (MOV without the letter C means that the instruction used in the data memory).

Sign '@' is used to mark A + DPTR is used to indicate the number of contents in-memory copy it to the accumulator A, in this case the value stored in the DPTR (Data Pointer Register - 2 bytes) plus the value stored in accumulators A (1 byte) is used to refer to the program memory numbers.

'Verb' in AT89Cx051
Overall AT89Cx051 have as many as 255 kinds of instruction, which was formed by combining the 'verb' and objects. "The verb 'is the group discussed the following:

PENG GROUP-COPY-DATA AN MCS51
Basic code for this group are MOV, abbreviation of MOVE, which means to move, though more correct to say this command have meaning copying the data. This can be explained the following: after the instruction MOV A, R7 done, accumulators A and all-purpose register R7 contains the same data, originally stored in R7.

MOV command is distinguished according to the type of memory AT89Cx051. This command is on the memory data is written into MOV, for example:


MOV A, $ 20

MOV A, @ R1

MOV A, P1

MOV P3, A

To use the program memory, this command is written into MOVC, there are only 2 types of wear MOVC instructions, namely:


MOVC A, @ A + DPTR; DPTR as register indirect

MOVC A, @ A + PC, PC as the register indirect


In addition, there is also known MOVX command, the command that is used for external data memory (X singkatakan from External). This command is only available to the MCS51 family members who have an external data memory, for example AT89C51 and so forth, and certainly not known by the group that tidam AT89Cx051 have external data memory. There are only 6 kinds of wear MOVX instruction, these instructions are:


MOVX A, @ DPTR

MOVX A, @ R0

MOVX A, @ R1

MOVX @ DPTR, A

MOVX @ R0, A

MOVX @ R1, A



GROUP ARIMATIK (ADD, ADDC, SubB, DA, MUL and DIV)
ADD and ADDC command

The contents of accumulators A plus the number 1 byte, the sum will be collected back in the accumulator. In this operation Carry bit (C flag in the PSW - Program Status Word) serves as a reservoir overflow of the sum. If the sum of the abundance (a value greater than 255) will carry bit value '1 ', if not Carry bit value '0'. ADDC same with ADD, only in bits Carry ADDC value in the previous process involved summed together.

Numbers 1 byte is added to the accumulator, can be derived from a constant, from the all-purpose register, memory data from memory number is called directly or indirectly, as shown in the following example:

ADD A, R0; register versatile

ADD A, # $ 23; a constant

ADD A, @ R0; no memory indirect

ADD A, P1; no direct memory (port 1)




ORDERS IN PROGRAMMING SubB MCS51
The contents of Accumulator A less the number 1 byte follows with Carry bit value, the reduction will be accommodated again in the accumulators. Carry bits in this operation also serves as a reservoir overflow of the reduction. If the reduction is abundant (score less than 0) bits Carry would be worth '1 ', if not Carry bit value '0'.

SubB A, R0; A = A - R0 - C

SubB A, # $ 23; A = A - $ 23

SubB A, @ R1

SubB A, P0


DA command

DA command (Decimal Adjust) is used after the command ADD, ADDC, or SubB, used to convert 8-bit binary value stored in the accumulator into 2 pieces decimal number, each consisting of 4-bit binary value.

MUL AB ORDERS IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
8-bit binary number in accumulator A is multiplied by an 8-bit binary number in register B. The result of multiplication of binary 16-bit, 8 bit binary number that greater weight be accommodated in the register B, while the other 8 bits are accommodated in the smaller weight accumulator A.

OV bit in the PSW (Program Status Word) is used to mark the result of multiplying the existing value in register B. OV bit will be worth '0 'if register B is worth $ 00, if not worth OV bit '1'.

MOV A, # 10

MOV B, # 20

MUL AB

DIV AB ORDERS IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
8-bit binary number in accumulator A is divided by an 8-bit binary number in register B. The result of the division of 8-bit binary numbers stored in the accumulator, while the rest of the division of 8-bit binary number stored in register B.

OV bit in the PSW (Program Status Word) is used to mark the value before the division that exists in the register B. OV bit will be worth '1 'if register B originally worth $ 00.

GROUP LOGIC (ANL, ORL and XRL) IN PROGRAMMING MCS51
This command group used to perform logic operations MCS51 microcontroller, logic operations can be done is the AND operation (operation code ANL), OR operation (operation code ORL) and the Exclusive-OR operation (XRL operation code).

The data used in this operation can be data that is in the accumulator or data that are in-memory data, this is a little different with arithmetic operations that must be actively melihatkan accumulators.

Operating results are accommodated in the first data source.

AND logic operation is widely used to me '0' a few specific bits of an 8-bit binary number, the way to forming an 8-bit binary numbers as a data-ANL constant in a number of origin. Bit-'0' want in a represented by '0 'in constant data, while other bits given the value '1', eg
Instructions ANL P1, #% 01111110 will result in bit 0 and bit 7 of Port 1 (P1) value '0 'while the other bits remain unchanged in value.

OR logic operation is widely used to me '1' a few specific bits of an 8-bit binary number, the way to forming an 8-bit binary numbers as constant data in a number-ORL origin. Bit-'1' want in a represented by '1 'in constant data, while other bits given the value '0', eg
Instructions ORL A, #% 01111110 will result in bit 1 to bit 6 of the accumulator value '1 'while other bits remain unchanged in value.

Exclusive-OR logic operation is widely used to reverse the value (complement) some particular bits of an 8-bit binary number, the way to forming an 8-bit binary numbers as constant data in a number-XRL origin. Bit you want behind-the value represented by '1 'in constant data, while other bits are the value '0', eg
Instructions XRL A, #% 01111110 will result in bit 1 to bit 6 of the accumulator turned value, while other bits remain unchanged in value.
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Ultra Fast Battery Charger

Ultra Fast Battery Chager for Nickel-Cadmium battery cells [NiCad] which will be discussed in this article is Fast NiCad Battery Charger, called the Ultra Fast Charger Battery Charger NiCad because it can make filling fast NiCad Batteries Cell. A battery charger in Desai has a fast charging capabilities such as Ultra Fast Battery Chager for Nickel-Cadmium battery cells [NiCad] on this article shall be equipped with some ability to protect the battery and charger circuit itself.



Feature owned by Ultra Fast Battery Chager for Nickel-Cadmium battery cells [NiCad]

  • Autoshut-off, is the ability of the charger to stop charging current to a NiCad battery if the capacity NiCad battery is fully charged.
  • Polarity Protection, with the existence of this capability so if there are mounting the battery on the charger upside yan can be known.
  • Constant output voltage
  • Output currents enough to fill some NiCad batteries at once in parallel.
  • Short Circuit Protection, with the existence of this protection circuit so if there is short-circuit caused by a battery and a charger circuit itself will not damage the other parts are not damaged.
  • Series Ultra Fast Battery Chager for Nickel-Cadmium battery cells [NiCad]


Ultra Fast Battery Charger


Image series above is a series of schematic drawings for Ultra Fast Battery Chager for Nickel-Cadmium battery cells [NiCad]. Ultra Fast Battery Chager for Nickel-Cadmium battery cells [NiCad] can be used for 8 to 10 NiCad batteries at once with 12 volt output voltage and max current is 3.5 A. The main components in the circuit of Ultra Fast Battery Chager for Nickel-Cadmium battery cells [NiCad] is UC3843 and MC34181. UC3843 chip is a voltage regulator and M34181 is a JFET OpAmp with characteristic low offset voltage, input impedance is very high. MC34181 serves as a voltage comparator.
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Characteristic NiCad Battery Charger

The advantages of NiCad batteries are rechargeable and can be in physical shape with regular batteries so no need to modify its casing. In addition, if compared with NiCad Batteries ordinary batteries, nickel cadmium batteries, or better known as NiCad batteries, the resistance has on ordinary batteries (NiCad battery with a record of the condition is still good). NiCad batteries in the market today there are several options for its size, among other 700mAh NiCad battery or 1500 mAh.

The point is that these NiCad battery can supply current to the electronics equipment with current 700mA for 1 hour (for 700mAh battery). So if we use these 700mAh NiCad batteries for electronic devices that draw a current of 1 A, the NiCad battery can only last for less than 1 hour. The temperature of NiCad batteries also affect battery life. If the battery is too hot the battery will quickly run out due in part generated by the battery current is converted into heat.

Characteristics NiCad Batteries :
1. NiCad batteries must be filled with a large constant current.

2. The battery will be fully charged if it reaches 140% charge of the maximum charging the battery.

3. The variation of the battery voltage changes depending on the charging function and also depends on the temperature of the battery.

4. When charging has been completed then the temperature will rise quickly (heat rises quickly) so chager need to be turned off. Because if not turned off will cause the battery temperature will continue to rise and eventually will explode.
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Battery Charger Temperature Sensor circuit with LM35

Battery Charger Temperature Sensor circuit with LM35 used to monitor the battery temperature is in charge. Battery temperature sensor is needed because the battery temperature will rise at the time in charge. Battery temperature sensor LM35 temperature sensor has high accuracy in monitoring the battery temperature, it is because the temperature sensor LM35 is a temperature sensor that can convert temperature changes into voltage changes linearly.


Need for Battery Temperature Monitor With Temperature Sensor LM35
At the time of the charge a battery will experience changes in temperature, where the battery temperature will begin to rise when the battery began to fill. To avoid over heat the battery, the battery temperature sensor LM35 temperature sensor is required to terminate the battery charging current to avoid overheating.

Battery Charger Temperature Sensor circuit with LM35

Battery Charger Temperature Sensor circuit with LM35



On the battery charger circuit temperature sensor with temperature sensor 35 lm above the R1 is used for setting the maximum value of the desired temperature. Therefore, when the temperature was in-charge the battery begins to rise and reach temperatures setup then this series will break the current battery charge.
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Solar tracker With AT89S52

AT89S52 With solar tracker is a tool used to control the direction of the panel Solar Cell for always getting sunlight. AT89S52 With solar tracker uses a light sensor as a light detector. AT89S52 With solar tracker uses dc motors for Solar Cell panels menegendalikan direction. Broadly speaking AT89S52 With Solar tracker may be analogous as a tool to adjust the position of the exposure to the sun solar cell  direction by Ensor sensing light and a DC motor which is controlled using a microcontroller AT89S52.

Solar tracker With AT89S52

Solar tracker With AT89S52


Pictured above is a series that could be used for the light sensor on the solar tracker With AT89S52. The light sensor on AT89S52 With Solar tracker can use the LDR. Configuring LDR on Solar Tracker With AT89S52 using OP-Amp as a signal conditioner output of the LDR.
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1500W High Power Amplifier

Circuit Power Amplifier has a power output of up to 1500W RMS, power amplifier circuit is often used to power sound systems needed to outdor. In a series of images can be seen the final power amplifier uses 10 sets of large power transistors for the ending. This power amplifier circuit using a transistor amplifier starting from the front, signal splitter, driver and power amplifier. Current consumption required is quite large power amplifier that is 15-20 A for this 1500W power amplifier circuit. Supply voltage needed by the power amplifier in order to work optimally is symmetrical 130VDC (130VDC ground-+130 VDC). 1500W amplifier circuit below is a picture series of mono, if you want to create a stereo it is necessary to make 2 copies of the circuit. For more details can be viewed directly image following a series 1500W power amplifier.

High Series 1500W Power Amplifier Transistors With


In the above series 1500W power amplifer has been equipped to control the DC Offset function to set the power amplifier when turned on and no input signal then the output should 0VDC. Then it is also equipped with a bias flow regulator to the power amplifier. The final power amplifier section requires that sufficient coolant to absorb heat generated. Power amplifier is not equipped with speakers protectors, therefore it should diapsang speaker protector on the output for when the power amplifier is turned on does not happen the beat to the speakers that may damage the speaker.
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Stereo Amplifier with Tube

Stereo amplifier is very simple, consisting of 5 active components including the power supply it. Series Stereo Amplifier With Tube was prepared with 5 units trioda tube consisting of 1 unit tubes 5Y3 GT vacuum rectifier, 2 tube tube trioda 6SF5 GT high-mu tube 6k6 and 2 units which form the power beam amplifiers. Power consumption for the circuit with a tube stereo amplifier is not more than 45 Watt. Current consumption for the circuit with a tube stereo amplifier is around 3A. A complete range of stereo amplifiers with this tube can be seen from the following series of images.

Stereo Amplifier With Tube

Stereo Amplifier with Tube




Sign Component Stereo Amplifier With Tube
R1, R10, R13 2.2M
R2 470K 1/2W
1 Meg 1/2W R3
R4 220K 1/2W
R5 330 Ohm 2W
R6 220K 1/2W
R7 2.2Meg 1/2W
R8 1Meg 1/2W
R9 720 Ohm 20W
R11 33K 1/2W
R12 22K 1/2W
C1, C9 400V 0.005uF
C2 0.05uF 600V
C3 20uF 25V
C4 0.01uF 400V
C5 200uuF 400V
C6, C7 15uF 450V
C8 15uF 400V
T1 117V Primary, Secondary 350VCT, 2 × 6.3V
T2 7600 Ohm Primary, Secondary 4 or 8 Ohm
SW1 SPST Switch
SP1, SP2 12 "4 / 8 ohm
C8 in the series stereo tube amplifier with the above serves to reduce radio frequency interference and to optimize the work of a wild series of ampifier stereo with these tubes.
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Tuesday, May 24, 2011

LM35 temperature sensor

LM35 temperature sensor is an electronic component that functions to alter the temperature of physical quantities in the form of a magnitude electrical voltage. LM35 temperature sensor has a parameter that each increase of 1 º C increase by 10mV of output voltage with a maximum limit of the sensor output is 1.5 V at a temperature of 150 ° C. For example, the design use LM35 temperature sensor we set the adc output reaches full scale when the temperature of 100 ° C, so that when the temperature is 100 ° C. The transducer output voltage (10mV / ° C x 100 ° C) = 1V.

Physical form LM35 temperature sensor

LM35 temperature sensor



Although the LM35 temperature sensor voltage can reach 30 volts but given kesensor is at 5 volts, so it can be used with single power supply with the provision that the LM35 only require a current of 60 μA this means that LM35 has the ability to produce heat (self-heating) of sensors that can cause a low reading error is less than 0.5 º C at a temperature of 25 º C.

The following are the characteristics of the LM35 temperature sensor.
It has a temperature sensitivity, with linear scale factor between voltage and temperature of 10 mVolt / º C, so it can be calibrated directly in Celsius.
Has the accuracy or the accuracy of the calibration is 0.5 º C at a temperature of 25 º C as shown in Figure 2.2.
It has a maximum range of operating temperatures between -55 º C to +150 º C.
Working on a voltage of 4 to 30 volts.
Having a low flow of less than 60 μA.
Having low self-heating (low-heating) that is less than 0.1 º C in still air.
It has a low output impedance is 0.1 W for 1 mA load.
Having not linear only about ± ¼ º C.
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555 basic PWM controller

IC Timer 555 has a basic PWM controller with features pengendalianlebar 0 .. 100% pulse that is controlled using the R1, at the time of controlling the oscillator frequency relatively stabi so it may be used to build the Simple PWM controller. Frequency of Simple PWM controller 555 depending on the value of R1 and C1, values ​​shown R1 and C1 will form the output with a frequency of 170 to 200 Hz. Diode-diode used in the Simple PWM controller With this 555 can use a 1N4148.

555 basic PWM controller


R2, R3 and C3 form a giver triger circuit beginning at the reset IC 555 for 2 seconds. If you want to use a series of Simple PWM controller 555 with the V + not +12 V, it does not matter to raise tilapia R2 where (V + * R2) / (R2 + R3) is about 2, because it limits the signal level reset is 0.5 .. 1V. If you do not do that, then signal the kickstart to get too close to the limit reset signal reception.

Q output of 555 on the Simple PWM controller circuit 555 is used for driver PWM pulse, so that the discharge pin is used for transistor output driver instead. This is an open collector output, and is used as an active signal is low, so it can work. D3 protects the output transistor of the load induction. You may replace any suitable transistors for Q1, BD140 is 1.5 amps.

C4 and C5 is the power decoupling capacitor for the IC 555 on the Simple PWM controller circuit 555, which produce relatively large level of push-pull output stage.
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DC motor driver with H-Bridge IC L293D

IC H Bridge DC motor driver L298 has two H-Bridge circuit in it, so it can be used to download the drive two DC motors. H Bridge DC motor driver L298 each can deliver currents up to 2A. However, in use, the H Bridge DC motor driver L298 can be used in parallel, so the ability to deliver the H Bridge DC motor driver L298 flow into 4A. The consequences of the installation of H Bridge L298 DC motor driver with the parallel mode, you need 2 pieces Bridge H L298 DC motor driver to control two DC motors using H bridge DC motor driver L298 in parallel mode.

H Bridge Pin IC L298 DC motor driver which is connected in parallel operation mode:
* OUT1 connected to OUT4.
* OUT2 OUT3 linked.
* IN1 is connected to IN4.
* IN2 connected to IN3.
* ENABLE ENABLE A linked to B.


DC motor driver


OUT1/OUT4 and OUT2/OUT3 associated with DC motors to be controlled.

Please note that the output of the L298 does not have a safety diode. Thus, the need to add two diodes - flyback diodes, with appropriate current capability, at any point output.
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4-Digit Digital Stopwatch

Stop Watch Digital in this article are manufactured using a source clock of timer IC 555 and to process the timing performance using the IC 74C926. IC 74C926 is a 4-digit counter with output latches are installed internally to the output viewer 7 segment and for the output driver NPN transistor to control the viewer 7 segment common cathode. penampilanan engineering data by the IC 74C926 done multiplexing to 4 pieces a viewer in control 7 segment through NPN transistor. The beating of the Stop Watch Digital built using a 555 timer IC dseting has output that can be set to tap the Stop Watch Digital is to count time 0.1 seconds and 1 second.

Digital Stop Watch

4-Digit Digital Stopwatch




Work System Stop Watch Digital
First time series Digital Stop Watch will be used to do reset the Stop Watch Digital by pressing the S3 (Reset switch) so layaf will display data 0000. Then to start doing the counting is done by pressing the S2 (button start / stop) and to stop the Stop Watch Digital counting process is done by pressing the S2 (button start / stop) on the Stop Watch Digital. Then to choose the time of counting on a series Digital Stop Watch is provided by 2 votes counting time 0.1 seconds and 1 second to choose from dengang S1 in the Stop Watch Digital.
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Basic Theory IC 555

Theory Timer 555
Timer 555 is a timer IC that works based on the RC circuit and the comparator is coupled with a digital component (R-Sflip-flop). The first 555 of the type manufactured by Signetics SE-555 working at -55 ° C to 125 ° C and the NE-555 working at 0 ° C-70 ° C. Then 555 is produced with different designs include the LM555, 556 (dual version), and LMC-555 (CMOS version). Timer 555 operates at +5 V dc power supply sd +18 V with temperature stability of 50ppm / ° C (0.005% / ° C). Output 555 can be a current sink / source up to 200mA. IC 555 is compatible with the components of TTL, CMOS op-amps, transistors and other types of linear ICs.

Basic Theory IC 555

Timer 555 can operate either as a monostable or astable. The resulting square wave output can have a variation of duty cycle ranging from 50 - 99.9% and the frequency of less than 0.1 Hz up to more than 100KHz. 555 Series consists of two voltage comparators (COMP1 and COMP2), a control flip-flop RS (reset / set) that can be reset from outside via the pin 4, an inverting amplifier output (A1), and a discharge transistor (Q1). Kompartor second bias level determined by voltage divider resistors (Ra, Rb, and Rc) contained between Vcc and ground. Inverting input 2/3Vcc komparator1 given input and noninverting input from the given input komparator2 1/3Vcc. Monostable operation requires the input pulse triggers the PIN2 of IC 555. Input trigger voltage drop of more than +2 / 3Vcc toward the voltage is less than + Vcc / 3.

Monostable operation Timer 555
Monostable multivibrator (MMV), also called a one shot, producing a pulse output with a certain period when triggered by a pulse input. Output from Oneshot will instantly go 'high' following the trigger pulse (trigger) and will remain 'high' in accordance with its period. When the period had expired, the output will return 'low'. Outpt Oneshot will remain 'low' until there is another trigger. IC 555 can be operated as MMV by adding an appropriate external circuit.

Both internal comparator prasikap given voltage with a certain voltage level by voltage divider arranged series (Ra, Rb, Rc). Inverting input voltage up to 2/3Vcc komparator1 given, and the noninverting input voltage komparator2 given Vcc / 3. Tersebutlah voltage operation resulted in 555 both as a monostable or astable. External timing circuit (R1C1) connected between Vcc and noninverting input komparator1 through pin6. Pin7 also been linked with causing terhubungnya pin6 transistor to the capacitor C1. When the transistor is 'on', the resistance of the capacitor is so low that connect (short) through the relationship of CE transistor.

When 555 is connected to the source voltage, input voltage inverting komparator1 will receive registration 2/3Vcc and noninverting input voltage komparator2 would have amounted to Vcc / 3. This causes the RS flip-flop in a reset condition, so that its output Qnot 'high'. Therefore flip-flop connected to the output through an inverting amplifier pin3 (A1) then the output 555 'low'. In these conditions the capacitor charge (charging). Qnot in the 'high' cause transistor Q1 saturated, which means is connected to ground through a capacitor C1. So in this condition the capacitor to remove the charge (discharge) so that Vc = 0.

If PIN2 give trigger input, when pulsatrigger move towards less than 1/3Vcc voltage as shown in the picture, the noninverting input is more positive than the input komparator2 invertingnya, so that the output komparator2 be 'high'. At that time, FIP-flop in the set, so that the output Qnot her 'low' and keuaran 555 'high'. Because of its low Qnot output, means of transistors in the 'off'. Current flows from Vcc to ground through a capacitor C1. In other words, the capacitor re-charging. (Picture). Capacitor voltage will continue to rise until it reaches 2/3Vcc, at which time the output Vc = 2/3Vcc komparator1 be 'high' and cause the flip-flop is reset and the output 555 back to 'low'. The output 555 will remain until there is another trigger input.

All IC timers rely on an external capacitor to determine the interval of time off-on pulse output. The capacitor would require a certain time to charge or discharge through a resistor. Time can be explained and calculated from the resistance and capacity are given. Equation pulse period to 555 depending on the time required by the capacitor at the time of filling until it reaches 2/3Vcc voltage provided by the RC time constant. Thus, if the capacitor voltage e = E (1 - (-t/RC)), can be calculated time will enable the comparator threshold.
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+12V to +/-20V DC converter

DC To DC Converter circuit used to be an alter tegngan voltage DC to DC with different concepts. DC to DC converter circuit +12 V to + /-20V is working to change the battery voltage from 12V DC to 20V DC voltage symmetrical. DC to DC converter circuit is often applied to the power amplifier udio on car audio systems. DC to DC converter circuit uses a TL494 IC as power plsa for the converter. TL494 IC is a PWM controller with an adjustable frequency from 40-60Hz through a potentiometer. Then from the TL494 PWM signal is given to the driver MOSFET inverter TPS2811P to be given to the power inverter with 2 units of MOSFET transistors. Circuit details can be seen in the figure following the DC to DC converter.

DC To DC converter circuit +12 V To + / - 20V

+12V to +/-20V DC converter

List Components DC To DC Converter +12 V To + / - 20V
R1, R2 = 10
R3, R4, R6, R7 = 1k
R5 = 22k
R8 = 4.7k
R9 = 100k
C1, C2 = 10000uF
C3, C6 = 47 u
C4 = 10U
C5, C7, C14 = 100n
C8, C9 = 4700u
C12 = 1N
C13 = 2.2u
U1 = TL494
U2 = TPS2811P
Q1, Q2 = FDB045AN
D1-D4 = 1N5822
D5 = 1N4148
FU1 = 10A
L1 = 10U
L2 = ferrite BEAD
RV1 = 2.2k
RV2 = 24k
T1 = TRAN-3P3S
DC To DC converter circuit +12 V To + / - 20V is capable of supplying up to 100W and can power supplying currents up to 3A. In making DC To DC Converter +12 V To + / - 20V has to be careful and cautious because there are parts of DC To DC Converter +12 V To + / - 20V in the form of an AC circuit.
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Monday, May 23, 2011

Digital basic logic gates

Digital basic logic gates, or often also called Boelan logic gates is a digital logic gate will output a logic 0 and 1 corresponds to the input received from each gate depends on the function logic. In the digital basic logic, there are 3 basic logic gates, ie AND gates, OR gates, NOT gates. Third this gate produces 4 next digital logic gates, namely: NAND gates, NOR gates, XOR gates, gate XAND.

AND Logic Gate
AND logic gate has the output formula AB = C, ie when both its inputs are not all the logic 1 output will be logic 0 and when both input logic 1 then the new output is logic 1.

OR Logic Gate
OR logic gate having an output summing function can be formulated A + B = C ie if one input is logic 1 then the output will be logic 1 and when both input logic 0 then the new output will be logic 0.

NOT logic gate
NOT logic gate or often also called inverting logic gates. NOT gate will output a value opposite of the input.
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Drive Stepper Motor with IC UCN5804

IC IC UCN5804 is designed specifically for the purpose of stepper motor drivers. Stepper motor driver IC UCN5804 with this very simple and uses only 2 additional components as current-limiting resistors which flows into the stepper motor, it also can be removed so that the stepper motor driver is a pure IC UCN5804 only use only. UCN5804 IC can be used for stepper motor driver with 5-20VDC voltage. Source voltage required for a series of stepper motor driver IC dengn this UCN5804 follow steppernya motor voltage. Picture a series of stepper motor driver ICs with UCN5804 in detail can be seen in the following figure.

Drive Stepper Motor circuit UCN5804

Drive Stepper Motor circuit UCN5804

In the series of stepper motor drivers with IC UCN5804 above to run a DC motor takes 2 inputs ie, the input signal and the input logic stepper direction of rotation. The input signal is a pulse stepper with a certain frequency where the frequency of these pulses that determines the speed of stepper motor puter. Then the input logic is a stepper motor rotating direction input logic 0 and 1 that is given to the IC UCN5804 to adjust the stepper motor rotating direction.
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